Fuel Cells, Hydrogen & Vanadium Battery


Water4Gas is one of the most PRACTICAL free-energy devices, marked by extraordinary simplicity and effectiveness.


fill'er up—with hydrogen

If burned as a vehicular fuel, hydrogen can be combusted at the high compression ratios and efficiencies demanded by internal combustion engines. When combined with oxygen in automotive fuel cells to generate electricity without combustion, hydrogen fuel raises the car's energy efficiency and produces only heat and water as byproducts. When hydrogen is burned with air in an internal combustion engine, some nitrogen oxides are formed, but fewer than the pollutants generated by fossil fuels, according to the Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse in Merrifield, Va.

Towards a Sustainable Energy Future

The fossil fuels era is slowly coming to an end. Dwindling resources, global warming and dependence on energy imports are calling for energy from clean domestic sources. Time has come for the establishment of a sustainable energy future. But which way shall we go.

Hydrogen: Empowering the People

While the fossil-fuel era enters its sunset years, a new energy regime is being born that has the potential to remake civilization along radically new lines--hydrogen. Hydrogen is the most basic and ubiquitous element in the universe.

Hydrogen Or Fuel Cell - Which Comes First?

The conventional wisdom is that the cost of fuel cells will drop dramatically when significant numbers are sold, but this will not happen until hydrogen-refueling stations are as common as gasoline stations. The classic chicken-and-egg question appears: "Which comes first?"

Electrolysis: Obtaining hydrogen from water

Electrolysis: Obtaining hydrogen from water: The Basis for a Solar-Hydrogen Economy

Introduction to Electrolysis: Hydrogen from Water


What is RET™?

Radiant Energy Transfer (RET™) technique (patent pending) is a new process technology that has the potential of being the most efficient methodology for converting water into hydrogen.

"RET™ Technology promises to be the most efficient method of producing hydrogen

Through our patent pending processes, Genesys LLC, can convert CO2 and water into chemicals such as methane, methanol or even high-octane gasoline depending on customers’ needs and market requirements.

Energy Efficiency

Energy losses accompany all energy conversion processes. Therefore, in order to obtain as great an efficiency as possible, several steps must be taken to ensure minimization of energy losses.

Overview of a Basic Solar Hydrogen System


Electrochemically Assisted Microbial Production of Hydrogen from Acetate

By augmenting the electrochemical potential achieved by bacteria in this MFC with an additional voltage of 250 mV or more, it was possible to produce hydrogen at the cathode directly from the oxidized organic matter.

Microbial fuel cell: High yield hydrogen source and wastewater cleaner

Penn State environmental engineers and a scientist at Ion Power Inc. have developed the first process that enables bacteria to coax four times as much hydrogen directly out of biomass than can be generated typically by fermentation alone.

Microbial Fuel Cell Turns Waste Into Hydrogen By Patrick Norton

By keeping oxygen away from the MFC and introducing a small amount of electricity (.25 volts), the process bypasses the "fermentation barrier and converts and converts a "dead end" fermentation product, acetic acid, into carbon dioxide and hydrogen."

How Hydrogen Can Save America

The cost of oil dependence has never been so clear. What had long been largely an environmental issue has suddenly become a deadly serious strategic concern. Oil is an indulgence we can no longer afford

Fuel Cell Industry Survey


Financial information reported by North American publicly traded fuel cell companies provides valuable insight into an industry highly protective of intellectual property and competitive positioning.  What emerges is the image of an industry operating at a loss.  While revenues are increasing, they are as yet insufficient to fund the high cost of research and development.  Sources of sustainable funding remain essential to bringing commercially viable fuel cell technologies to market.


RenewableHydrogenForum.pdf (posted 10/07/03)

A huge file (it may take a while to download) but full of great up-to-date info.

Fuel Cells

A description

The Fuel Cell Industry

Where are we in "Fuel Cell" Technology?

Hydrogen Cars Get a Jump Start  by Jesse Broehl


The biggest bottleneck in wide scale use of fuel cell today eventually boils down to numbers, i.e., the industry’s inability to reap the benefits of the economies of scale that can come from mass production. As with many new technologies, the industry is yet to emerge out of a classic cycle of limited marketplacing limits on mass production—resulting in high costsrestricting marketability.

Fuel Cells 2000 March issue

Fuel Cells 2000's Fuel Cell Technology Update - December 2002

The Hydrogen Economy - Energy and Economic Black Hole

The energy-literate scoff at perpetual motion, free energy, and cold fusion, but what about the hydrogen economy? Before we invest trillions of dollars, let’s take a hydrogen car out for a spin.

The Reality of Fuel Cells

Build a better mousetrap and the world will beat a path to your door. At least that is how the old saying goes. It is doubtful the world would bother, if the price of the trap were ten times that of the old-time standard. This is the problem with the latest acclaimed energy device, the fuel cell.


The Vanadium Battery

It's not all doom and gloom however, the Vanadium Battery might just return a little spring to your step and a bigger smile on your face when you next see your grand kids.

How does the VRB work?

Vanadium, an abundant and stable metal, is held in two ionic forms in a diluted sulphuric acid electrolyte solution. It is the Vanadium pentoxide resulting from this process that effectively stores the energy.

VRB Power Systems Inc

Based in Vancouver, B.C. Canada, VRB Power Systems Inc. is an electrochemical energy storage company that has commercialized the patented Vanadium Redox Battery Energy Storage System

VRB Power Systems Inc

VRB Power Systems Inc.
Suite 1645-701 West Georgia Street
Vancouver, B.C., Canada V7Y 1C6

What are the commercial opportunities for VRB?

There is a growing demand worldwide for a reliable and versatile energy storage system.

What is a Vanadium Redox Battery?

The Vanadium Redox Battery (VRB) is an electrochemical energy storage device, whereby energy (electricity) can be stored indefinitely in a liquid and can be recovered instantaneously.

Why is the VRB technology preferable to other battery technologies?

The VRB has been referred to as “The Green Battery” due to the materials used in it’s construction and for it’s ability to integrate with natural power sources such as wind and solar.

Control System

The PCS role is to charge and discharge the battery and to provide enhanced power quality, voltage support and frequency control to the local grid.

Cellennium Thailand Awarded Electricity Trading Concession by Thailand

Cellennium can commercially apply its vanadium battery systems for electricity trading. Under the time-of-use (TOU) electricity pricing scheme, the vanadium battery can be used for arbitrage: storing electricity at night when the price is low and releasing electricity for sale to MEA during daytime hours when the price is high.

Mitsubishi International Corporation Becomes a Strategic Investor in Cellennium

investment will help Cellennium move ahead with the commercial production of its licensed vanadium reversible fuel cell technology for the production and storage of electricity from renewable sources (solar, wind, biomass).


The golf cart was originally powered by six 6 volt lead-acid batteries that were stored under the seat.


Generation 2 electrolyte can range from 3-4 Molar which means that its increased energy density (30-50 Wh/kg) makes it suitable for use in a much wider range of electric vehicle applications including on-road buses and trucks as well as in delivery vans and vehicles for urban areas.

The Vanadium Redox Battery for Emergency Back-Up Applications

A vanadium battery emergency back-up system has been designed and tested for operation between a restricted voltage operating range of 22-28V.


Recent research and development in the areas of wind and solar energy has led to dramatic cost reductions which will allow these technologies to compete with traditional electricity generation in the not too distant future.


the battery can be charged at one voltage and discharged at another while also supporting an external load if needed. A grid interactive inverter is also installed.

vanadium [vunā'dēum]

vanadium , metallic chemical element; symbol V

Interview with Professor Maria Skyllas-Kazacos

The redox flow battery concept was ideal, one problem was that if you have two solutions of different elements separated by a membrane, when you pump the solutions through the cell stack the membrane can’t separate them permanently.

Commercialisation of vanadium battery is advancing strongly

Canadian-based company VRB Power Systems’ patented Vanadium Redox Battery Energy Storage System (VRB-ESS), which has strong links to South Africa, has commercialised the VRB-ESS (large systems 50 kW to 10 MW) and is in late commercialisation phase for 2,5 to 20 kW systems

UNIKEN The University of New South Wales

Professor Maria Skyllas-Kazacos of UNSW's School of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry, was speaking of the vanadium battery that her group has been developing for the past 10 years.

Soon after the group began its battery research it chose vanadium, a little known but abundant metal, as a candidate for a new battery technology.

Improved PV System Performance Using Vanadium Batteries

A Vanadium-Vanadium Redox battery can improve Photovoltaic system performance, reliability and robustness by increasing the energy conversion efficiency of the battery to 87%

This system has already been used in a domestic load levelling application and has shown that energy self sufficient housing is not a future possibility but indeed a reality. An electric vanadium golf cart has been completed and initial road trials indicate that this battery system shows great promise for specialised traction applications although further research to increase energy density is required before it can be used in commuter vehicles. Back-up power systems are incorporated in virtually all industries and a vanadium bach-up battery system is currently under development for use in submarines.

Vanadium Battery Update 1

I would like this message to get through to auto-manufactures, public officials and enterprising people who can disseminate and implement such information. Read this material. If you are convinced (as I am) after examining the technical data that this vanadium battery should be commercially available in many forms e.g. for electric vehicles, energy-autonomous homes and industry, I think it might be a good idea to send this on to influential contacts that you may have, so that they can explore the possibilities of the vanadium battery.

Vanadium Battery/Vanadium Patent.pdf

The 5kW Vanadium Redox Battery

The VRB-ESS addresses the problem of traditional lead acid battery systems such as short lifetimes, maintenance requirements, and recycling costs.

If I want to purchase a Vanadium Battery, where do I go?

VRB Power has the rights to the U.S. The larger systems (50kW to 10MW - multiple hours) are commercially available now. Small 5kW systems will be commercially available late this year.

A lot of the material here came from an excellent source of new inventions.

Norbert’s Pages. - With many, new and green technologies mentioned.

Some excellent scientific studies on Vanadium Batteries may be found on this site:



Daniel Dingel

Introduction to the "Water Car" of Daniel Dingel of the Philippines.  He insists it runs on Water and has done so since 1969.

Daniel Dingel's Hydrogen-Powered Car

second disappointment: there was a bad smell of gazoline from the left exhaust pipe

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